Heather McLeod


Body, Mind, Soul,


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IMSA National Health Insurance Policy Briefs

Heather McLeod worked with Innovative Medicines South Africa (IMSA) from 2009 to 2012 to put material and evidence in the public domain to progress the technical work of developing a National Health Insurance (NHI) system in South Africa.


The material was initially held on the IMSA site under a section on National Health Insurance. When IMSA merged into IPASA in 2014, the material became hard to find on the web. Accordingly, the files are available here or directly from the author.



The background section had a short paper on the nature of healthcare financing reform, a glossary of healthcare financing terms and material on historic developments around National Health Insurance in South Africa. The background briefs can be downloaded as a set or the glossary can be downloaded separately.


• Background Brief: Understanding Healthcare Financing

• IMSA NHI Glossary of Healthcare Financing Terms

• Background Brief: NHI in South Africa: 1940 to 2008

• Background Brief: NHI in South Africa in 2009

• Background Brief: NHI in South Africa in 2010


• IMSA NHI Glossary of Healthcare Financing Terms



There were 26 NHI Policy Briefs in the series. They were produced with a policy brief on the topic, an executive summary (in two pages), a set of slides and in some cases additional evidence in the form of papers or spreadsheets.  The blue buttons below allow a PDF portfolio of the executive summaries and all the briefs to be downloaded. Alternatively, the briefs can be downloaded in three separate groupings. For access to the spreadhseets or other supporting material, please contact the author.








• Policy Brief 1: The Population for Universal Coverage

• Policy Brief 2: Expanding Health Insurance Coverage

• Policy Brief 3: The Impact of Chronic Disease on a Future NHI

• Policy Brief 4: The Impact of HIV on a Future NHI

• Policy Brief 5: The Impact of Cancer on a Future NHI

• Policy Brief 6: Costing and Long-term Modelling of NHI

• Policy Brief 7: The Role of Private Health Insurance

• Policy Brief 8: Reducing Fragmented Risk Pools

• Policy Brief 9: Affordability of Health Insurance


• Policy Brief 10: Defining the Benefit Package

• Policy Brief 11: Estimating Delivery Efficiency under NHI

• Policy Brief 12: Impact of Healthcare Reform on Members

• Policy Brief 13: Savings under NHI: Non-Healthcare Costs

• Policy Brief 14: Comparison of NHI Proposals

• Policy Brief 15: NHI and Workplace Healthcare

• Policy Brief 16: Universal Coverage and Equitable Financing

• Policy Brief 17: LIMS Reforms and  Equitable Subsidies

• Policy Brief 18: Projected Population and HIV/AIDS Update

• Policy Brief 19: Projected Non-communicable Diseases Update


• Policy Brief 20: The Tax Base in South Africa

• Policy Brief 21: Myths about Medical Schemes

• Policy Brief 22: Solidarity in OECD Countries

• Policy Brief 23: Solidarity in the BRIC Countries

• Policy Brief 24: The NHI Pilot Sites in South Africa

• Policy Brief 25: Income and Social Solidarity in South Africa

• Policy Brief 26: Multiple Purchasers and NHI in South Africa


Policy Brief 11 refers to a paper "Preliminary Estimate of NHI Costing in 2009 Rand Terms.

McLeod-Grobler-Van der Berg Model: Methodology and Assumptions". The paper can be downloaded here.



Innovative Pharmaceutical Industry Association South Africa (IPASA)

Healthcare Financing, Policy and Reform

If you have difficulty accessing the material on the new site, contact the author for access to the  slides and supporting spreadsheets